Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 15 - 120 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 23°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Society and Tuamoto islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to northeastern Australia. The name Lethrinus kallopterus has long been applied to this species. Lethrinus cinnabarinus Richardson also appears to be synonymous with this species.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 25 - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
soft rays: 8. The largest species of Lethrinus. Deep body, blunt snout with orange spots, and bright orange rounded fins of adults (straw yellow in the Indian Ocean) are distinctive (Ref. 37816). The caudal fin is only slightly forked with tips becoming rounded in adults. Body is brown dark gray, with indistinct scattered small dark and light stripes sometimes on lower sides. The head is brown or gray, often with small orange spots on the cheeks in small adults. The Pectoral and Pelvic fins are white to orangish. The dorsal and anal fins are mottled orange and bluish. The caudal fin is often bright orange, especially in sub adults.
Occurs in deep lagoons and channels, outer reef slopes and adjacent soft bottom areas (Ref. 30573). Solitary in or near ledges or caves by day (Ref. 9710). Feeds on echinoderms, crustaceans, mollusks (Ref. 171), echinoids, crinoids and starfish (Ref. 37816). May be ciguatoxic in some areas (Ref. 37816). Marketed fresh (Ref. 171).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 2295)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 28.6, mean 27.5 (based on 748 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00752 - 0.01922), b=2.99 (2.86 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .