Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 10 - 198 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 38°N - 31°S, 30°E - 139°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to south Korea in the Yellow Sea, and the Marquesas Islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 20 - 26 cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
soft rays: 8. Body color is olive-gray or brown, with scattered irregular small black blotches. The upper edge of the operculum usually has a red spot. Lips are usually red. Fins are pale or pinkish.
Found over sand and rubble areas of outer reef slopes (Ref. 30573). Feeds mainly on crustaceans, fish, echinoderms and mollusks (Ref. 30573). In New Caledonia, spawning peaks are observed in December and a fairly high percentage of gonads in advanced stages of maturity occurs between October and February. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Also Ref. 103751.
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.4 - 28.3, mean 26.9 (based on 844 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.01202 - 0.01738), b=2.99 (2.95 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .