Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 200 m (Ref. 11230). Subtropical; 62°N - 1°N, 99°E - 163°E (Ref. 54698)
Western Pacific: Japan, Sakhalin, Kuril Islands, Korean Peninsula to the South China Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 40 - ? cm
Max length : 103 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 9.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Most highly prized of the Japanese flounders.
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.6 - 25, mean 18.8 (based on 241 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00441 - 0.01304), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3; Fec= 3 million).
Prior r = 0.47, 2 SD range = 0.27 - 0.82, log(r) = -0.76, SD log(r) = 0.28, Based on: 1 K, 2 tgen, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .