Etheostoma caeruleum Storer, 1845
Rainbow darter
photo by The Native Fish Conservancy

Family:  Percidae (Perches), subfamily: Etheostomatinae
Max. size:  7.7 cm TL (male/unsexed); max. reported age: 3 years
Environment:  benthopelagic; freshwater
Distribution:  North America: Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from southern Ontario in Canada and from western New York to Minnesota, and south to northern Alabama and Arkansas in the USA. Isolated populations in southwestern Mississippi and eastern Louisiana, and in upper Potomac River drainage in West Virginia, USA.
Biology:  Adults inhabit fast gravel and rubble riffles of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 5723, 10294); also found in streams (Ref. 10294). Feed on midge larvae, hydropsychid and hydroptilid caddisfly larvae, mayfly nymphs, and fish eggs (Ref. 10294). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 36980). Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 07 December 2011 Ref. (130435)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   

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