Epinephelus bilobatus Randall & Allen, 1987
Frostback rockcod
Epinephelus bilobatus
photo by Allen, G.R.

Family:  Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets), subfamily: Epinephelinae
Max. size:  33 cm TL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  reef-associated; depth range 4 - 50 m
Distribution:  Eastern Indian Ocean: known only from Western Australia. Was illustrated in color as Epinephelus maculatus by Allen (1985, Ref. 1677) and Sainsbury et al. (1985, Ref. 3131). This species have been much confused with other 'reticulated groupers' in literature, and many museum specimens have been misidentified.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 11-11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17-18; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 8-8. Characterized by: greyish-brown color overall with hexagonal brown spots; white strip at back; dorsal fin base with 2-3 dark bilobed spots; body scales ctenoid, cycloid scales anterodorsally on thorax and ventrally on abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.3 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.8-2.1 in head length (Ref. 90102); preopercle subangular, with serrae at the angle slightly enlarged; opercular spines inconspicuous; straight or slightly concave upper edge of operculum; nostrils subequal in small fish, but posterior nostril diameter about twice of that of anterior nostril in a fish of 27 cm SL; maxilla reaches below rear half of eye; 2 rows of small teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 089707).
Biology:  No fishery information is available. Found on coral reefs or rocky bottom (Ref. 089707). No published information on its biology. Solitary (Ref 90102).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 22 November 2016 Ref. (120744)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   

Entered by: Capuli, Estelita Emily - 12.02.93
Modified by: Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei - 06.06.17
Checked by: Capuli, Estelita Emily - 23.03.94

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