Coregonus autumnalis (Pallas, 1776)
Arctic cisco
Coregonus autumnalis
photo by Harrod, C.

Family:  Salmonidae (Salmonids), subfamily: Coregoninae
Max. size:  65 cm SL (male/unsexed); max. reported age: 12 years
Environment:  pelagic-neritic, anadromous
Distribution:  Europe: All drainages (except Ob and Baikal) of Arctic Ocean in Eurasia from Mezen eastward. North America: Cape Barrow to Coronation Bay. Introduced in many localities of former USSR, but not established (Ref. 59043).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-12; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 12-14; Vertebrae: 64-67. Distinguished by the pale or colorless pelvic fins, a terminal mouth and the presence of 41 to 48 gill rakers on the 1st gill arch (Ref. 27547). Dorsal fairly high and slightly falcate; pelvic with axillary process (Ref. 27547). Brown to dark greenish above fading to silvery on sides and belly; fins pale (Ref. 27547).
Biology:  Occurs in brackish waters (20-22 ppt) of coastal lagoons and mouths of rivers and bays (Ref. 4779). Mostly in larger lowland rivers (Ref. 59043). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on small crustaceans, insects, small fishes (Ref. 28219, 28857), worms and clams (Ref. 58426). At sea, feeds on larger crustaceans and small fish (Ref. 59043). No feeding occurs during the upstream migration (Ref. 4779). Lives 10 -12 years, rarely up to 20 (Ref. 59043). Enters rivers in shoals to spawn (Ref. 4779). Spends 6-8 years at sea before maturing and returning to rivers in June - July, to spawn in September - October of same year. A second run in autumn; those fishes remain a year in rivers before spawning. Moves far upstream, sometimes our to 1500 km. Spawns in shallow tributaries with some current in well oxygenated water over gravel bottom. Individual females do not spawn every year; spawns only 2-3 times during entire life. After spawning adults return directly to sea. Embryonic development lasts up to 7 months. Alevins migrate downstream in May - June (Ref. 59043). Collected by fyke nets (Ref. 4526). An important commercial species, but catches and abundance markedly reduced in last years (Ref. 59043).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 01 January 2008 Ref. (120744)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   
 

Entered by: Froese, Rainer - 01.05.91
Modified by: Casal, Christine Marie V. - 07.07.10
Checked by: Himberg, Mikael - 17.01.95

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