Ecology of Elops machnata
Main Ref. Thollot, P., 1996
Remarks Occurs in coastal waters, but enters lagoons and estuaries (Ref. 4832). Young and adults feed on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 5213). Probably spawn at sea, but the transparent larvae migrate to inshore areas and are often found in brackish water (Ref. 7050). Are voracious carnivores that take fish, squid and shrimp bait (Ref. 3968). Pelagic. Inhabits coastal waters, lagoons and estuaries. Reportedly forms large adult shoals when breeding. Nocturnal predator. Feeds on small fishes and shrimp (Ref. 9773).

Aquatic zones / Water bodies

Marine - Neritic Marine - Oceanic Brackishwater Freshwater
Marine zones / Brackish and freshwater bodies
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Elops machnata may be found.


Substrate Pelagic;
Substrate Ref. Al-Abdessalaam, T.Z.S., 1995
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.


Associations shoaling;
Associated with
Association remarks


Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type Ref. Fischer, W., I. Sousa, C. Silva, A. de Freitas, J.M. Poutiers, W. Schneider, T.C. Borges, J.P. Feral and A. Massinga, 1990
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit Ref. Smith, M.M., 1986
Trophic Level(s)
Estimation method Original sample Unfished population Remark
Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 3.97 0.31 3.84 0.58 Troph of adults from 4 studies.
From individual food items 3.86 0.61 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
Ref. Marais, J.F.K., 1984
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
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