Ecology of Lycengraulis grossidens
 
Main Ref. Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988
Distribution
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
Brackishwater
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
Freshwater
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Lycengraulis grossidens may be found.
Remarks Occurs in brackish estuaries and adjacent marine areas; penetrates freshwater (Ref. 5217). Forms moderate schools. Usually migrating from estuaries or the sea, but possibly the limnichthys of Lake Maracaibo and the amazonensis represent purely freshwater forms. In freshwater, it feeds principally on small fishes, prawns and copepods; also insect larvae. At sea, it feeds on fishes, various crustaceans, benthic organisms and zooplankton (Ref. 189). Consumed fish for more than 65% relative occurrence of its diet (Ref. 76754).

Substrate

Substrate
Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.

Associations

Ref.
Associations
Associated with
Association remarks
Parasitism

Feeding

Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit ref Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition
Ref.
From individual food items 3.67 0.67 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Binohlan, Crispina B. on 10.19.90
Modified by Pablico, Grace Tolentino on 06.25.08
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