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Cichla ocellaris Bloch & Schneider, 1801

Peacock cichlid
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Image of Cichla ocellaris (Peacock cichlid)
Cichla ocellaris
Female picture by Kullander, S.O.

Brazil country information

Common names: Furiba, Peixe zebra, Peixe moeda
Occurrence: questionable
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments: Outside distributional range, occurrence needs confirmation.
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Welcomme, R.L., 1988
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes (Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Cichlinae
Etymology: Cichla: Greek, kichle = wrasse (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 5 - ? m.   Tropical; 24°C - 27°C (Ref. 2060); 26°N - 9°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

South America: Marowijne drainage in Suriname and French Guiana to the Essequibo drainage in Guyana.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 32 - ? cm
Max length : 74.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 6.8 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Diagnosis. Distinguished from all other species of Cichla except C. nigromaculata, C. intermedia, C. piquiti, and C. melaniae, by presence of bars 1a and 2a. Lateral band abbreviated in juveniles. Distinguished from its congeners with abbreviated lateral band by lateral line usually continuous (vs. discontinuous or nearly always discontinuous in orinocensis and nigromaculata; scales in E1 row (67-) 70-80 (-82) (vs. 84-93 in pleiozona); occipital bar absent or indistinct (vs. emphasized in adults of monoculus, kelberi, and pleiozona); abdominal blotches present (vs. absent in orinocensis); vertical bars present at adult size (vs. three midlateral ocellated blotches in orinocensis), except that an ocellated blotch consistently formed in dorsal portion of bar 3; absence of small black blotches on dorsum (vs. present in nigromaculata); vertical bars about equally wide across side (vs. wide, occasionally confluent dorsally, and tapering ventrad in nigromaculata, monoculus, kelberi, and pleiozona. Distinguished from C. intermedia, C. piquiti, and C. melaniae by abbreviated vs. complete juvenile lateral band, less scales in E1 row (67-82 vs. (78) 83-108), and presence of ocellated blotch in dorsal portion of bar 3 vs. absence (Ref. 57716).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in the rapids, in quiet waters with medium depth and rocky substrates (Ref. 35237). Forms schools (Ref. 9086). Feeds only on small fish, especially threadfin shad, mosquito fish, tilapia and bluegill. Not considered ideal for aquaculture due to its highly predatory habits (Ref. 1739). Reproduction occurs year-round, with a peak at the start of the rainy season. About 9,000 to 15,000 eggs per kg are released during spawning. Spawning takes place every two months on a flat stone in shallow water. The sticky eggs, measuring 1.4 mm in diameter, take 78 hours to hatch at 28°C.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Spawning, with rare exceptions, takes place on a flat, horizontal surface which is either bare to begin with, or cleared of algae or other vegetation during the spawning activities. The female moves forward laying a single row of eggs and the male follows exuding sperm over each row. Once the eggs have hatched, the parents transport the larvae in their mouths to one of the depression nests.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Kullander, Sven O. | Collaborators

Kullander, S.O. and H. Nijssen, 1989. The cichlids of Surinam: Teleostei, Labroidei. E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands. 256 p. (Ref. 26372)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest (Ref. 1739)

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Fisheries: production; publication : search) | FishSource |

More information

Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00701 - 0.02480), b=3.03 (2.87 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Assuming tm=1; multiple spawning per year; Fec=9,000-15,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.