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Epinephelus polyphekadion  (Bleeker, 1849)

Camouflage grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Epinephelus polyphekadion   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Camouflage grouper)
Epinephelus polyphekadion
Picture by Randall, J.E.


Australia country information

Common names: Blue-tailed cod, Camouflage cod, Camouflage grouper
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments: Reported from the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands (Ref. 75154). Museum: Lord Howe Is., AMS I.5225. Great Barrier Reef, AMS I.15617-022, IA.2230, I.18739-035; USNM 202806, 205729. Queensland, AMS I.13963, IB.7534. Western Australia: AMS IB.2633; WAM P.28025-006, P.24795-001 (Ref. 4787). Also Ref. 4319, 5222, 5978, 90102, 89707.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Hoese, D.F., D.J. Bray, J.R. Paxton and G.R. Allen, 2006
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 90.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4319); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 58 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 46 m (Ref. 9710)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 30°N - 34°S, 27°E - 134°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa to French Polynesia. In the western Pacific it ranges from southern Japan to southern Queensland and Lord Howe Island. Often confused with Epinephelus fuscoguttatus.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-15; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: pale brown color; head, body and fins covered by numerous small dark brown spots; whitish upper half of body with large irregular dark blotches and dark saddle on upper tail base; body scales ctenoid in broad zone on side from beneath pectoral fin to caudal peduncle, cycloid elsewhere; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.7-3.1 in SL; rounded caudal fin; short pelvic fins, 1.9-2.4 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.3-2.5 times in SL; flat interorbital area, evenly convex dorsal head profile; rounded preopercle, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; very convex upper edge of operculum; posterior nostril diameter about twice diameter of anterior nostrils; maxilla reaches to or beyond vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-3 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; front of jaws with inconspicuous fixed canines (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Usually found in coral-rich areas of lagoon and outer reefs; in caves and large crevices to swim through (Ref. 48635). Most abundant around islands, particularly atolls. Usually in small schools. Feeds mainly on crustaceans (portunid crabs) and fishes, sometimes on cephalopods and gastropods. In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Frequently ciguatoxic in the Marshall Is. (Ref. 37816). Solitary (Ref 90102).

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 1602)



Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
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Stamps, Coins Misc.
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Ciguatera
Speed
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Gill area
Otoliths
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Internet sources

BHL | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record | Fishtrace

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.0   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Very high