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Epinephelus lanceolatus  (Bloch, 1790)

Giant grouper
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Epinephelus lanceolatus
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Australia country information

Common names: Giant grouper, Groper, Grouper
Occurrence: native
Salinity: brackish
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments: Museum: USNM 174321. Queensland, Clifton, AMS I.11374. Reported from Rowley Shoals and Dampier Archipelago off Western Australia and South Australia (Ref. 5222). Also known from Rottnest Is., W. A. to Woy Woy, N. S. W. (Ref. 7300). Also Ref. 4787, 33390, 48635, 090102, 89707.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Johnson, J.W., 1999
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 270 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5213); common length : 190 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 400.0 kg (Ref. 26367)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 129 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 200 m (Ref. 89972), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 37816)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 29°N - 39°S, 24°E - 122°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to Algoa Bay, South Africa and eastward to the Hawaiian and Pitcairn islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia. Absence in the Persian Gulf is puzzling.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-16; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Dorsal fin spines of large individuals increase in size from front to back. It is the largest of all coral reef dwelling bony fishes (Ref. 37816); overall dark grey color with variable amount of pale spots/blotches; cycloid scales on body; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.3-3.4 in SL; short pelvic fins, 23.0-2.7 in head length (Ref. 90102); further characterized by having head length 2.2-2.7 times in SL; interorbital width 3.3-6.2 times in HL; flat to slightly convex interorbital area, convex dorsal head profile; subangular preopercle, finely serrate, the angle rounded; convex upper edge of operculum; eye diameter 5.8-14 in head length; subequal anterior and posterior nostrils; maxilla reaching past vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-3 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw increasing to 15-16 rows in fish of 177 cm SL; small or absent canine teeth at front of jaws (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

The largest bony fish found in coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Common in shallow waters. Found in caves or wrecks; also in estuaries. Individuals more than a meter long have been caught from shore and in harbors. Juveniles secretive in reefs and rarely seen (Ref. 48635). Benthopelagic and benthic (Ref. 58302). Feed on spiny lobsters, fishes, including small sharks and batoids, and juvenile sea turtles and crustaceans. In South African estuaries, the main prey item is the mud crab, Scylla serrata. Unconfirmed reports of fatal attacks on humans. Nearly wiped out in heavily fished areas (Ref. 9710). In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Large individuals may be ciguatoxic (Ref. 37816).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)



Human uses

Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
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Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.0   ±0.60 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Very high vulnerability (86 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Very high