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Inimicus didactylus  (Pallas, 1769)

Bearded ghoul
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Inimicus didactylus
Picture by Petrinos, C.


Australia country information

Common names: Longsnout stinger, Longsnout stingerfish
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Museum: LPPL JIF (TGT2366). From North West Cape to Darwin.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Gloerfelt-Tarp, T. and P.J. Kailola, 1984
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Synanceiidae (Stonefishes) > Choridactylinae
Etymology: Inimicus: Latin, inimicus = enemy (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 80 m (Ref. 37816).   Tropical; 25°N - 21°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Thailand to Vanuatu, north to the Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 559) and southeast China, south to Australia.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 15 - 17; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-9; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 10 - 12. Body colors highly variable and best identified by the patterns on the fins (Ref. 48635). Lower 2 pectoral rays are entirely free and used as "walking" legs and the inner face of the fin is brightly colored (Ref. 37816).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on open sandy or silty substrates of lagoon and seaward reefs. Often buries itself and easily overlooked. Uses pectoral fins to startle predators and shows color during courtship (Ref. 48635). Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 9710). The venom of this fish can be deadly to man. Its ability to camouflage itself by living half-buried presents a real danger. Solitary on sand and mud bottoms (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 1602)




Human uses

Aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 26.3 - 29, mean 28.2 (based on 1088 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5010   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00777 - 0.04896), b=2.97 (2.75 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .