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Cheilinus undulatus  Rüppell, 1835

Humphead wrasse
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Image of Cheilinus undulatus (Humphead wrasse)
Cheilinus undulatus
Picture by Honeycutt, K.


Australia country information

Common names: Blue-tooth groper, Double-headed maori wrasse, Double-headed parrot-fish
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments: Reported from the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands (Ref. 75154). Also Ref. 2334.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Hoese, D.F., D.J. Bray, J.R. Paxton and G.R. Allen, 2006
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Labridae (Wrasses) > Cheilininae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 229 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9823); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 191.0 kg (Ref. 9710); max. reported age: 32 years (Ref. 51676)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 52 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 58652)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 30°N - 23°S

Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa (Ref. 35918) and to the Tuamoto Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia. Formerly known as Vulnerable (A1d+2cd) (Y. Sadovy) but now listed as Endangered in IUCN 2004 and listed in Appendix II of CITES.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Adults of this species develop thick lips and a prominent bulbous hump on the forehead. Juveniles pale greenish with elongate dark spots on scales tending to form bars; 2 black lines posteriorly from eye (Ref. 4392).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit steep outer reef slopes, channel slopes, and lagoon reefs (Ref. 1602). Benthopelagic at 2-60 m (Ref. 58302). Usually solitary but may occur in pairs. Juveniles are encountered in coral-rich areas of lagoon reefs, where staghorn Acropora corals abound (Ref. 1602); also in algae reefs or seagrasses (Ref. 48636, 41878). Adults rove across the reefs by day and rest in reef caves and under coral ledges at night (Ref. 31343). Primary food are mollusks, fishes, sea urchins, crustaceans, and other invertebrates. One of the few predators of toxic animals such as sea hares, boxfishes and crown-of-thorns starfish (Ref. 1602). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Found in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 5374)



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial

More information

Common names
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Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
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Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
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Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
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References
Aquaculture
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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5078 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.0   ±0.61 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm = 5-7; tmax = 32)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Very high vulnerability (86 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Very high