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Epinephelus fuscoguttatus  (Forsskål, 1775)

Brown-marbled grouper
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Epinephelus fuscoguttatus
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Australia country information

Common names: Black rock-cod, Brownmarbled grouper, Carpet cod
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments: Museum: Northern Territory, New Year's Is., NTM S.10600-008. Queensland, Great Barrier Reef, Heron Is., AMS IB.5066. Also known from Kendrew Is., Western Australia (Ref. 7300). Also Ref. 2114, 4787, 5222, 33390, 090102, 89707.
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Hoese, D.F., D.J. Bray, J.R. Paxton and G.R. Allen, 2006
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2114); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137); max. published weight: 11.0 kg (Ref. 5222); max. reported age: 40 years (Ref. 74383)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 50 - ? cm


Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 9710)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 29°N - 27°S, 33°E - 171°W (Ref. 5222)


Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa and the Phoenix Islands, north to Japan, south to Australia. Unknown from the Persian Gulf, Hawaii, and French Polynesia. Often confused with Epinephelus polyphekadion (=Epinephelus microdon of recent authors).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-15; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Small juveniles (<8 cm) with small hexagonal spots on head and body becoming larger posteriorly and on vertical fins (Ref. 37816); distinguished by pale yellowish brown color with five vertical series of irregular dark brown blotches; head, body and fins with numerous close-set, small brown spots; caudal peduncle with small black saddle dorsally; cycloid scales except ctenoid in juvenile; body with auxiliary scales; moderately deep bodied, greatest depth 2.6-2.9 in SL; pelvic fins 2.1-2.4 in head length (Ref. 90102); further characterized by having head length 2.3-2.5 times in SL; flat or slightly concave interorbital area; adults dorsal head profile indented at eyes and distinctly convex from there to origin of dorsal fin; rounded preopercle, finely serrate; distinctly convex upper edge of operculum, descending almost vertically to rear end of operculum; deeply indented anterior edge of preorbital bone below nostrils; triangular posterior nostrils, 4-7 times larger than anterior nostrils in adults; maxilla extends well posterior to eye; 3-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw, inner teeth twice as long compared to outer teeth; canines inconspicuous; nostrils are close together (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in lagoon pinnacles, channels, and outer reef slopes, in coral-rich (Ref. 1937) areas and with clear waters. Juveniles in seagrass beds (Ref. 30573, 41878). Feeds on fishes, crabs, and cephalopods. May be ciguatoxic in some areas (Ref. 1602). Mainly active at dusk (Ref. 48635). Palau fishers increase their drop-line and spear-gun catches through knowledge of reproductive cycle of remochel, one of most important species in the area (Ref. 2928). Cultured under experimental conditions in the Philippines; a candidate for aquaculture in Singapore. In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial

More information

Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

BHL | BOLDSystems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production; publication : search) | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record | Fishtrace

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.1   ±0.72 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16-0.20)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
High vulnerability (58 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Very high