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Siganus spinus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Little spinefoot
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Siganus spinus
Picture by Greenfield, J.

Australia country information

Common names: Black spinefoot, Black trevally, Blue-spotted trevally
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Northern Western Australia and Great Barrier Reef.
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Woodland, D.J., 1990
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Siganidae (Rabbitfishes)
Etymology: Siganus: Latin, siganus = a fish, rabbit fish; by the similarity of the nose (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 28016), usually 1 - 20 m (Ref. 27115).   Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); 30°N - 30°S, 77°E - 129°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Known from India to French Polynesia; north to Japan; south to New Caledonia.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9813)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines: 7; Anal soft rays: 9; Vertebrae: 13. The species can adopt a number of camouflage patterns involving off-white, pale gray to blackish, and various shades of brown. The basic pattern consists of a labyrinth of narrow bands with upper half vermiculate, the lower ones tend to meander horizontally. This pattern extends to the fins. Iris golden dissected by a chocolate cross. 4-5 irregular off-white bars on caudal peduncle. Scales fine on cheeks, densely packed over lower 2/3 of preopercular region. Midline of thorax without scales between pelvic ridges. Fin spines stout, pungent, venomous. Preopercular angle 87-100 degrees.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit shallow coral reef flats. Found in rivers (Ref. 12792, 48637). Occurs in small schools (usually less than 10 individuals). Juveniles gather in larger numbers in corals with algae-grown at their bases (Ref. 48637). Initially, they browse on fine textured, e.g. filamentous algae, switching to coarser algae with increasing size. Both adults and juveniles are diurnal feeders (Ref. 4666). Fry are marketed fresh, pickled in brine or made into fish paste (Ref. 9813). Can inflict painful stings (Ref. 4690).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Woodland, David J. | Collaborators

Woodland, D.J., 1990. Revision of the fish family Siganidae with descriptions of two new species and comments on distribution and biology. Indo-Pac. Fish. (19):136 p. (Ref. 1419)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 4690)

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.6 - 29, mean 28 (based on 950 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.01282 - 0.02967), b=3.01 (2.89 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.03 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.