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Pteroplatytrygon violacea  (Bonaparte, 1832)

Pelagic stingray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Pteroplatytrygon violacea   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Pelagic stingray)
Pteroplatytrygon violacea
Picture by Mollet, H.F.


Australia country information

Common names: Guilers stingray, Pelagic stingray, Violet stingray
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Occurs in Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales. Also Ref. 9840.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994
National Database:

Classification / Names

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 96.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 48844); common length : 80.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 9254)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 40 - 50 cm

Environment

Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 1 - 381 m (Ref. 58302), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 55209)

Climate / Range

Subtropical; 52°N - 50°S, 167°W - 180°E (Ref. 55209)

Distribution

Probably cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical seas. Eastern Atlantic: southeastern coasts of the Mediterranean and off Sicily. Reported from Cape Verde (Ref. 34514). Eastern Pacific: California (USA), Baja California (Mexico), and the Galapagos Islands Reported off Vancouver (Ref. 11980) and from Chile (Ref. 9068). Western Atlantic (Ref. 7251). There are 4 records from southern Africa (Ref. 11228).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

A thick, dark stingray with a broadly rounded snout and an angular pectoral disc; tail less than twice body length with a long lower caudal finfold ending far in front of tail tip, but with no upper finfold; disc without thorns; usually 1 extremely long sting on tail; eyes do not protrude (Ref. 5578). Uniformly violet, purple, or dark blue-green dorsally and ventrally (Ref. 3263). No prominent markings (Ref. 3263).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in open, tropical and warm temperate waters usually in the first 100 m. Possibly the only totally pelagic member of the family (Ref. 6871). Feeds on coelenterates (including medusae), squid, decapod crustaceans, and fish. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Venomous spine on tail. Common catch of the pelagic tuna (and shark) longline and gillnet fisheries (drift, Ref. 75025) operating throughout the region (Ref. 58048); also by purse-seine and bottom trawls (Ref. 75025). Utilized for its meat and sometimes cartilage (Ref.58048). Total length 110 TL (80 cm WD) (Ref. 9254).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 9254)



Human uses

More information

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 1.0000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.4   ±0.54 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.18 (captivity); Fec=1-9 (could probably have 2 litters per year))

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
High vulnerability (63 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Low