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Himantura undulata  (Bleeker, 1852)

Leopard whipray
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Image of Himantura undulata (Leopard whipray)
Himantura undulata
Picture by Devarapalli, P.


Australia country information

Common names: Leopard whipray
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Ranges from Ningaloo, Western Australia to the Torres Strait, Queensland. Also Ref. 8630.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal.   Tropical; 30°N - 24°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Bay of Bengal to New Guinea, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Not occurring in the western Indian Ocean.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 85 - 90 cm
Max length : 410 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9840)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Demersal on soft substrate inshore (Ref.58048). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Size at birth about 20 cm WD and 92 cm TL (Ref. 90102). Caught occasionally in the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl and longline fisheries. Utilized for its meat, skin (high value) and cartilage (Ref.58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2cd+3cd+4cd)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

More information

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Ecology
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Eggs
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Age/Size
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Morphometrics
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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25 - 29, mean 28.3 (based on 810 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00476 - 0.02768), b=3.04 (2.84 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (79 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.