Mugil cephalus was reported from 127 countries/islands


Table 1: the species is currently present in 110 of them (endemic, native, introduced);
Table 2: possible in 17 of them (stray, questionable);
Table 3: absent from 0 of them (extirpated, not established, misidentification, error).
Table 4: all reports listed together.

Distribution: Cosmopolitan in coastal waters of the tropical, subtropical and temperate zones of all seas. Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Chile (Ref. 2850). Western Pacific: Japan to Australia (Ref. 9812). Western Indian Ocean: from India to South Africa (Ref. 4393). Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Brazil (Ref. 7251); Cape Cod to southern Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 26938); absent in the Bahamas and most of West Indies and Caribbean (Ref. 7251, 9761). Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to South Africa, including the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea (Ref. 7399). Reported in Sea of Okhotsk (Ref. 50550).
How to read the map
Comments & Corrections


Table 1: Present in 110 countries/islands (endemic, native, introduced)
Continent Country Occurrence Main Ref.
Europe Albania ALB native 683
Africa Algeria DZA native 683
Asia Andaman Is. ANI native 87596
Africa Angola AGO native 3166
Oceania Australia AUS native 6390
Asia Bahrain BHR native 68964
Asia Bangladesh BGD native 42533
South America Brazil BRA native 7251
Europe Bulgaria BGR native 683
Asia Cambodia KHM native 85282
Africa Cameroon CMR native 51193
North America Canada CAN native 5951
Asia Chagos Is. CHG native 27307
South America Chile CHL native 2850
Asia China CHN native 47843
Asia Christmas I. CXR native 30874
South America Colombia COL native 2850
Africa Comoros COM native 57749
Oceania Cook Is. COK native 34027
North America Costa Rica CRI native 2850
Africa Cote d'Ivoire CIV native 28587
Asia Cyprus CYP native 683
South America Ecuador ECU native 40498
Africa Egypt EGY native 683
North America El Salvador SLV native 2850
Oceania Fiji FJI native 12743
Europe France FRA native 30578
South America French Guiana GUF native 3791
Oceania French Polynesia PYF native 12792
Africa Gabon GAB native 50787
South America Galapagos Is. GOS native 2850
Africa Gambia GMB native 28587
Asia Georgia GEO native 683
Africa Ghana GHA native 6810
Europe Greece GRC native 113897
North America Guatemala GTM native 2850
Africa Guinea GIN native 28587
Africa Guinea-Bissau GNB native 26999
Oceania Hawaii HWI native 583
North America Honduras HND native 2850
Asia Hong Kong HKG native 31075
Asia India IND native 4833
Asia Indonesia IDN native 7050
Asia Iran IRN native 39702
Asia Iraq IRQ native 115344
Asia Israel ISR native 683
Europe Italy ITA native 3397
Asia Japan JPN native 559
Asia Kazakhstan KAZ native 683
Africa Kenya KEN native 30558
Asia Korea (South) KOR native 77001
Asia Kuwait KWT native 68964
Asia Lebanon LBN native 2804
Africa Libya LBY native 683
Oceania Lord Howe I. LHI native 8879
Africa Madagascar MDG native 13333
Asia Malaysia MYS native 5756
Europe Malta MLT native 33971
Africa Mauritania MRT native 5377
Africa Mauritius MUS native 57749
Africa Mayotte MYT native 57749
North America Mexico MEX native 26550
Africa Morocco MAR native 683
Africa Mozambique MOZ native 5213
Asia Myanmar MMR native 5736
Africa Namibia NAM native 36731
Oceania New Caledonia NCL native 11889
Oceania New Zealand NZL native 5755
North America Nicaragua NIC native 2850
Oceania Norfolk I. NFK native 8879
Oceania North Marianas MNP native 6273
Asia Ogasawara Is. OGW native 26066
Asia Oman OMN native 68964
Asia Pakistan PAK native 2872
North America Panama PAN native 2850
Oceania Papua New Guinea PNG native 2847
South America Peru PER native 45845
Asia Philippines PHL native 2858
Europe Portugal PRT native 4944
Asia Qatar QAT native 68964
Africa Réunion REU native 48660
Africa Rodriguez ROD native 57749
Europe Romania ROU native 683
Europe Russia RUS introduced 683
Africa Sao Tome Princ. STP native 34088
Asia Saudi Arabia SAU native 13609
Africa Senegal SEN native 28587
Europe Serbia SRB native 683
Africa Seychelles SYC native 2830
Africa Sierra Leone SLE native 4743
Europe Slovenia SVN native 90061
Africa Somalia SOM native 30573
Africa South Africa ZAF native 7248
Europe Spain ESP native 683
Asia Syria SYR native 683
Oceania Tahiti TIT native 12792
Asia Taiwan TWN native 4868
Africa Tanzania TZA native 2871
Asia Thailand THA native 37773
Oceania Tonga TON native 27130
North America Trinidad Tobago TTO native 11225
Africa Tunisia TUN native 683
Asia Turkey TUR native 58342
Europe UK GBR native 40989
Europe Ukraine UKR native 683
Asia United Arab Em. ARE native 68964
North America USA USA native 7251
Oceania Vanuatu VUT native 13300
Asia Viet Nam VNM native 2682
Asia Yemen YEM native 117436

Table 2: Possible in 17 countries/islands (stray, questionable)
Continent Country Occurrence Main Ref.
North America Antigua Barbuda ATG questionable 3791
North America Barbados BRB questionable 3791
Africa Cape Verde CPV questionable 94080
North America Cuba CUB questionable 54206
North America Dominica DMA questionable 3791
North America Dominican Rp DOM questionable 3791
North America Grenada GRD questionable 3791
South America Guyana GUY questionable 3791
North America Haiti HTI questionable 3791
North America Jamaica JAM questionable 3791
South America Juan Fernández JFI questionable 33693
Africa Madeira Is. MRA questionable 74541
North America Puerto Rico PRI questionable 3791
North America St Kitts Nevis KNA questionable 3791
North America St Lucia LCA questionable 3791
North America St Vincent Gren. VCT questionable 3791
South America Suriname SUR questionable 3791

Table 4: Reported from 127 countries/islands.
Continent Country Occurrence Main Ref.
Europe Albania ALB native 683
Africa Algeria DZA native 683
Asia Andaman Is. ANI native 87596
Africa Angola AGO native 3166
North America Antigua Barbuda ATG questionable 3791
Oceania Australia AUS native 6390
Asia Bahrain BHR native 68964
Asia Bangladesh BGD native 42533
North America Barbados BRB questionable 3791
South America Brazil BRA native 7251
Europe Bulgaria BGR native 683
Asia Cambodia KHM native 85282
Africa Cameroon CMR native 51193
North America Canada CAN native 5951
Africa Cape Verde CPV questionable 94080
Asia Chagos Is. CHG native 27307
South America Chile CHL native 2850
Asia China CHN native 47843
Asia Christmas I. CXR native 30874
South America Colombia COL native 2850
Africa Comoros COM native 57749
Oceania Cook Is. COK native 34027
North America Costa Rica CRI native 2850
Africa Cote d'Ivoire CIV native 28587
North America Cuba CUB questionable 54206
Asia Cyprus CYP native 683
North America Dominica DMA questionable 3791
North America Dominican Rp DOM questionable 3791
South America Ecuador ECU native 40498
Africa Egypt EGY native 683
North America El Salvador SLV native 2850
Oceania Fiji FJI native 12743
Europe France FRA native 30578
South America French Guiana GUF native 3791
Oceania French Polynesia PYF native 12792
Africa Gabon GAB native 50787
South America Galapagos Is. GOS native 2850
Africa Gambia GMB native 28587
Asia Georgia GEO native 683
Africa Ghana GHA native 6810
Europe Greece GRC native 113897
North America Grenada GRD questionable 3791
North America Guatemala GTM native 2850
Africa Guinea GIN native 28587
Africa Guinea-Bissau GNB native 26999
South America Guyana GUY questionable 3791
North America Haiti HTI questionable 3791
Oceania Hawaii HWI native 583
North America Honduras HND native 2850
Asia Hong Kong HKG native 31075
Asia India IND native 4833
Asia Indonesia IDN native 7050
Asia Iran IRN native 39702
Asia Iraq IRQ native 115344
Asia Israel ISR native 683
Europe Italy ITA native 3397
North America Jamaica JAM questionable 3791
Asia Japan JPN native 559
South America Juan Fernández JFI questionable 33693
Asia Kazakhstan KAZ native 683
Africa Kenya KEN native 30558
Asia Korea (South) KOR native 77001
Asia Kuwait KWT native 68964
Asia Lebanon LBN native 2804
Africa Libya LBY native 683
Oceania Lord Howe I. LHI native 8879
Africa Madagascar MDG native 13333
Africa Madeira Is. MRA questionable 74541
Asia Malaysia MYS native 5756
Europe Malta MLT native 33971
Africa Mauritania MRT native 5377
Africa Mauritius MUS native 57749
Africa Mayotte MYT native 57749
North America Mexico MEX native 26550
Africa Morocco MAR native 683
Africa Mozambique MOZ native 5213
Asia Myanmar MMR native 5736
Africa Namibia NAM native 36731
Oceania New Caledonia NCL native 11889
Oceania New Zealand NZL native 5755
North America Nicaragua NIC native 2850
Oceania Norfolk I. NFK native 8879
Oceania North Marianas MNP native 6273
Asia Ogasawara Is. OGW native 26066
Asia Oman OMN native 68964
Asia Pakistan PAK native 2872
North America Panama PAN native 2850
Oceania Papua New Guinea PNG native 2847
South America Peru PER native 45845
Asia Philippines PHL native 2858
Europe Portugal PRT native 4944
North America Puerto Rico PRI questionable 3791
Asia Qatar QAT native 68964
Africa Réunion REU native 48660
Africa Rodriguez ROD native 57749
Europe Romania ROU native 683
Europe Russia RUS introduced 683
Africa Sao Tome Princ. STP native 34088
Asia Saudi Arabia SAU native 13609
Africa Senegal SEN native 28587
Europe Serbia SRB native 683
Africa Seychelles SYC native 2830
Africa Sierra Leone SLE native 4743
Europe Slovenia SVN native 90061
Africa Somalia SOM native 30573
Africa South Africa ZAF native 7248
Europe Spain ESP native 683
North America St Kitts Nevis KNA questionable 3791
North America St Lucia LCA questionable 3791
North America St Vincent Gren. VCT questionable 3791
South America Suriname SUR questionable 3791
Asia Syria SYR native 683
Oceania Tahiti TIT native 12792
Asia Taiwan TWN native 4868
Africa Tanzania TZA native 2871
Asia Thailand THA native 37773
Oceania Tonga TON native 27130
North America Trinidad Tobago TTO native 11225
Africa Tunisia TUN native 683
Asia Turkey TUR native 58342
Europe UK GBR native 40989
Europe Ukraine UKR native 683
Asia United Arab Em. ARE native 68964
North America USA USA native 7251
Oceania Vanuatu VUT native 13300
Asia Viet Nam VNM native 2682
Asia Yemen YEM native 117436
Back to Search
Back to Top

The map in this page was supported by BioFresh that has received funding from the
European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 226874

cfm script by eagbayani, 10.05.99 ,  php script by rolavides, 04/02/08 ,  last modified by sortiz, 06.27.17